Bone marrow is a vital part of the body as it produces platelets, red blood cells, and white blood cells. There are several cases where bone marrow functions can be impaired due to diseases such as leukemia and lymphoma. To recover from this stage the patient has to undergo a bone marrow transplant procedure. Through this process, the blood stem cells are transplanted into the system. This procedure starts the new bone marrow to grow and take shape.
The bone marrow transplant procedure helps the red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells flow again so that they can defend the body from diseases. Bone marrow is very crucial for the body as it helps in the proper functioning of the entire immune system. Physicians suggest bone marrow transplant procedures after examining the patient and assuring that the bone marrow is unable to produce any stem cells.
Below mentioned is the procedure of the bone marrow transplant.
Bone Marrow Transplant Procedure
Before the bone marrow procedure, a test is conducted to determine which type of bone marrow cells will be required. There are different treatments for different cases. For example, if you are being treated for cancer then a bone marrow aspiration and bone marrow the physician will suggest a biopsy.
In this process, the patient is given chemotherapy and radiation or any one of the two. This process takes place before the bone marrow transplant. The doses given here can be less or more depending on the process. There are generally two ways of doing the radiation or chemotherapy. In the Mini transplant, treatment radiation and chemotherapy are given in low dosage. In Myeloablative treatment, both radiation and chemotherapy are given in high dosage.
The reason the conditioning process takes place is to kill the cancer cells and suppress the immune system before the procedure.
There are two types of Bone Marrow transplant procedure that is explained below:
Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplant
In this procedure, a donor donates the healthy stem cells. This donor can be anyone but the tissues should match to carry the procedure forward. Through stem cell harvest, the donor stem cells are taken.
Autologous Bone Marrow Transplant
This procedure is done by injecting the patient to stimulate the production of stem cells. The injection helps the stem cells to move to the blood that will help initiate the procedure. Once this procedure is done, a machine is used to circulate the blood. The blood circulated is drawn from the veins helping to separate the stem cells from the blood. Once the stem cells are extracted, they are treated with radiation and chemotherapy. Once radiation and chemotherapy are done, the stem cells are again generated back to the body.
Once the healthy stem cells start to spread in your body they soon get formed with the bone marrow. Once this takes place then the production of stem cells starts to take speed. All procedures mentioned above for bone marrow transplant help get your immune system running smoothly. Once the bone marrow treatment is done the engraftment period can take up to a month.
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