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Everything You Should Know about Stem Cell Transplant Surgery

 

Stem cell transplant or bone marrow transplant is an advanced medical surgery performed by expert surgeons. Not much time has passed since this critical surgical procedure was introduced in the field of medical sciences. Previously, bone marrow cancers or other specific types of cancers were not treatable. At present, most patients with bone marrow cancers get treated through stem cell transplant surgeries.

 

Surgeons mainly suggest stem cell transplant surgeries when the patient’s bone marrow gets destructed due to cancer or chemotherapy. In such cases, doctors replace those patients’ bone marrow with stem cells to keep them alive.

 

What are the different types of stem cell transplants? 

 

Scientists and doctors have categorized stem cell transplants into three different categories- bone marrow transplant, peripheral blood stem cell transplant, and cord blood transplants. The categorization is based on where the stem cells are getting extracted from.

 

Besides these categories, the surgical procedure can be categorized into two other types too. Doctors determine these two types according to the donor of the stem cells. The following two types of stem cell transplants depend on the types of donors.

 

Autologous stem cell transplant 

 

In this case, the stem cells come from the patient’s own body. Surgeons extract stem cells from a specific area of the patient’s body and replace his bone marrow with those stem cells. Hence, no external donor is necessary for this procedure.

 

Allogeneic stem cell transplant 

 

In this type of transplantation, the stem cells are collected from an external donor’s body. No matter whether the donor is the patient’s relative or not, his stem cells should match with the donor for successful transplantation.

 

How do stem cell transplants cure cancer patients? 

 

Bone marrow is the origin of blood cells in the human body. Once a patient gets diagnosed with bone marrow cancer, his bone marrow doesn’t produce blood cells in adequate amounts. As the blood production rate in the patient’s body gets interrupted, his general bodily functions get interrupted too.

 

In such a case, doctors try to destroy all the cancer-affected bone marrow cells through chemotherapy. The higher radiation level of high-dose chemo kills the cancer cells. However, the active stem cells get killed by the chemo at the same time.

 

So, external stem cells are transplanted into the patient’s body for keeping blood production intact. Once all the cancer cells get killed and external stem cells are transplanted, the fresh stem cells grow up and lead the patient to complete recovery. This is how stem cell transplants cure cancer patients.

 

The common side effects that a cancer patient faces after a stem cell transplant surgery 

 

  • Throat pain and mouth pain are the most common symptoms that most patients suffer from after a stem cell transplant surgery.

 

  • Apart from that, patients tend to suffer from frequent infections as they don’t have white blood cells present inside their bodies.

 

  • Some patients report that they suffer from severe nausea and vomiting after they undergo stem cell transplant surgery.

 

These are all the important and relevant factors related to stem cell transplant surgery. You should keep all these points in your mind before undergoing stem cell transplant match surgery.

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Blood Cancer Donor

Bone Marrow Donation Process

How To Do A Bone Marrow Drive

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Phone: (800) 962-7769

Why Stem Cell Transplant Procedure Is Required in Certain Conditions

Bone marrow transplant, also known as stem cell transplants are done for replacing damaged blood cells and infusing healthy ones. This procedure is required for treatment of health conditions that mainly affect blood cells like lymphoma and leukemia.

Stem cells are the special cells that are produced through bone marrow (the spongy tissue in the bone’s center) turning into different blood cells.

There are 3 blood cell types that they become:

  • White blood cells – Helping in fighting the infection
  • Red blood cells – that are carrier of oxygen throughout the body
  • Platelets – that are helpful for stopping the bleeding

The procedure of stem cell transplant is meant for destroying unhealthy blood cells and replacing these with the stem cells that were removed through blood or through the bone marrow.

The reason for carrying out stem cell transplants

Stem cell transplants match are required for treatment of conditions where the bone marrow gets damaged and is not able to produce healthy blood cells.

The transplants can also get carried out for replacement of blood cells that have been destroyed or damaged as an outcome of the intensive procedure of cancer treatment.

Various health conditions that are treated through stem cell transplantation include:

  • Lymphoma – A type of cancer that affects white blood cells
  • Leukemia – Another cancer that affects the white blood cells
  • Myeloma – a type of cancer that affects cells known as plasma cells
  • Certain types of metabolic, immune system and blood disorders – A few examples are thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) along with Hurler syndrome.

A stem cell transplant typically only gets carried out when no other treatments are delivering results. The prospective benefits through a bone marrow transplant compensate all associated risks and you remain in a relatively good health, despite the underlying condition you’re in.

What is involved in stem cell transplant?

A stem cell transplantation procedure consists of taking out the healthy stem cells from bone marrow or blood of a person – can be a close member of the family with similar type of tissue – and then transferring it to the affected person – the process is known as an allogeneic transplant.

Also it is totally possible to remove all the stem cells out of your body and later transplant them, after the diseased or damaged cells get removed. This process is known as autologous transplant.

The procedure of stem cell transplantation is divided in 5 main stages, respectively as:

  • Harvesting- process of obtaining stem cells in the transplant, either from self or donor.
  • Examinations and tests – for assessing the general health level
  • Conditioning – treating with radiotherapy, chemotherapy for preparing the body for transplantation procedure
  • Transplant procedure of stem cells
  • Finally, recovery

The procedure of stem cell transplantation is a highly challenging and intensive experience. The patient would have to stay within the hospital for around a month or more until the transplant starts taking effect and it might take a year or 2 for fully recovering. The transplant process for stem cells isn’t possible by self and the patient requires donor for the stem cells.

The transplant has better chances of being successful if the donated cells are carrying special genetic marker – known as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) – similar or identical to the person getting transplant.

Finding a donor for stem cell transplant is simple and can be done through the registry, although in some cases it becomes very difficult to get an ideal match. Thus, utmost care and precautions must be followed throughout the process.

Gift of Life Marrow Registry Also Offers Following Services :

Leukemia Bone Marrow Transplant

Stem Cell Donor Registry

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Which Bone Marrow Registry Should I Join

Contact US:

Gift of Life Marrow Registry

Address:  800 Yamato Rd suite 101 Boca Raton, FL
Phone:  (800) 962-7769

Top Two Bone Marrow Transplant Procedures

Bone marrow is a vital part of the body as it produces platelets, red blood cells, and white blood cells. There are several cases where bone marrow functions can be impaired due to diseases such as leukemia and lymphoma. To recover from this stage the patient has to undergo a bone marrow transplant procedure. Through this process, the blood stem cells are transplanted into the system. This procedure starts the new bone marrow to grow and take shape.

The bone marrow transplant procedure helps the red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells flow again so that they can defend the body from diseases. Bone marrow is very crucial for the body as it helps in the proper functioning of the entire immune system. Physicians suggest bone marrow transplant procedures after examining the patient and assuring that the bone marrow is unable to produce any stem cells.

Below mentioned is the procedure of the bone marrow transplant.

Bone Marrow Transplant Procedure

Pre-transplant

Before the bone marrow procedure, a test is conducted to determine which type of bone marrow cells will be required. There are different treatments for different cases. For example, if you are being treated for cancer then a bone marrow aspiration and bone marrow the physician will suggest a biopsy.

Conditioning Process

In this process, the patient is given chemotherapy and radiation or any one of the two. This process takes place before the bone marrow transplant. The doses given here can be less or more depending on the process. There are generally two ways of doing the radiation or chemotherapy. In the Mini transplant, treatment radiation and chemotherapy are given in low dosage. In Myeloablative treatment, both radiation and chemotherapy are given in high dosage.

The reason the conditioning process takes place is to kill the cancer cells and suppress the immune system before the procedure.

There are two types of Bone Marrow transplant procedure that is explained below:

Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplant

In this procedure, a donor donates the healthy stem cells. This donor can be anyone but the tissues should match to carry the procedure forward. Through stem cell harvest, the donor stem cells are taken.

Autologous Bone Marrow Transplant

This procedure is done by injecting the patient to stimulate the production of stem cells. The injection helps the stem cells to move to the blood that will help initiate the procedure. Once this procedure is done, a machine is used to circulate the blood. The blood circulated is drawn from the veins helping to separate the stem cells from the blood. Once the stem cells are extracted, they are treated with radiation and chemotherapy. Once radiation and chemotherapy are done, the stem cells are again generated back to the body.

Once the healthy stem cells start to spread in your body they soon get formed with the bone marrow. Once this takes place then the production of stem cells starts to take speed. All procedures mentioned above for bone marrow transplant help get your immune system running smoothly. Once the bone marrow treatment is done the engraftment period can take up to a month.

Gift of Life Marrow Registry Also Offers Following Services :

Leukemia Bone Marrow Transplant Donor
Donating Bone Marrow Price

Contact US:

Gift of Life Marrow Registry
Address:  800 Yamato Rd suite 101  Boca Raton, FL
Phone: (800) 962-7769